اختصارات تجاری و حمل و نقل

وقتی تصمیم میگیریم که تجارت خود را بین المللی کنیم و یا فکر واردات و صادرات در سر داریم خیلی ضروری و مهم است که با اصطلاحات تجاری متداول و رایج آشنایی داشته باشیم و در مذاکرات و معامله هایمان آنها را بکار بگیریم، در پایین پرکاربردترین آنها را بصورت لیست توضیح دادیم.

مخففکامل انگلیسیتوضیحات 
3PLThird Party LogisticsA company’s use of a third-party to outsource its distribution, warehousing or other services
4PLFourth Party LogisticsA company outsources its logistics organisation and management. 4PL providers often manage the complete supply chain on behalf of the manufacturer or service provider. B2B2C
ADRDangerous Goods by Road (ADR)Goods that can do harm to people or the environment
AGSAden Gulf SurchargeSurcharge due to security measures when sailing through the Gulf of Aden (Pirates)
AGVAutomated Guided VehicleA materials handling robot/vehicle that uses automated vehicles such as carts, pallets or trays which are programmed to move between different manufacturing and warehouse stations without a driver. These systems are used to increase efficiency, decrease damage to goods and reduce overhead by limiting the number of employees required to complete the job.
AS-RSAutomated Storage and Retrieval SystemsConsists of a variety of computer-controlled systems for automatically placing and retrieving loads from defined storage locations
ATAActual Time of ArrivalActual time of arrival
ATA-CarnetAn international customs and temporary export-import documentATA carnet simplifies the customs clearance and replaces all export, import and transit documents. Read more about ATA-carnet here
ATDActual Time of DepartureActual time of departure
AWBAirWayBillFreight document for air
B-LBill of LadingFreight document for shipping
B2BBusiness to BusinessTrade between companies
B2CBusiness to ConsumerTrade between companies and consumers of the goods
BAFBunker Adjustment FactorOil/Fuel Surcharge
BarcodeBarcodeIdentification of the goods
BreakbulkGoods that must be loaded individually, and not in intermodal containers nor in bulk as with oil or grainShips that carry this sort of cargo are called general cargo ships
BulkCommodity cargo that is transported unpackaged in large quantitiesIt refers to material in either liquid or granular, particulate form, as a mass of relatively small solids, such as petroleum/crude oil, grain, coal, or gravel.
CAFCurrency Adjustment FactorCurrency surcharge
CbmCubic meterA volume that is made by a cube that is 1 meter on each side
Certificate of OriginCertificate of OriginCertificate of Origin of the goods
CFRCost and FreightDelivered when goods is loaded onto vessel, harbour for delivery should be named.
Chargeable weightFreight measurementWeight converted out of volume
ChassisChassis/Semi hangerTrailer for transporting containers
CIFCost, Insurance and FreightDelivered when goods is loaded onto vessel, harbour for delivery should be named. Consigner is responsible for insurance
CIPCarrige and Insurance Paid toDelivered when goods is passed onto 1.carrier or terminal, consignor is responsible for insurance
CMRInternational shipping letterInternational freight for road document which is legally binding
CODCash on DeliveryPayment by cash, also called collect on delivery, no invoice possible
CODChange of DestinationChange of agreed delivery address
ConsigneeConsigneeReceiver of the goods
ConsignorSender/shipperThe sender/shipper of the goods is where the goods is sent/shipped from
Control TowerControl TowerAn expert group that seamlessly manages, drives and further develops the supply chain and product flow for your business
Conversion keyConversion keyConversion factor from cbm/LM to weight
CPTCarrige Paid ToDelivered when goods is passed onto 1.carrier or terminal
Cross dockingCross dockingA practice in logistics of unloading materials from an incoming semi-trailer truck or railroad car and loading these materials directly into outbound trucks, trailers, or rail cars, with little or no storage in between
CRSCost Recovery SurchargeWe will charge Cost Recovery Surcharge (CRS) as feeder carrier’s rate have been increased. This additional is charged per TEU and will appear as a separate post on the invoice. Adjustment of the CRS will be informed one month before implementation.
DAPDelivered at PlaceDelivered when goods is ready to be unloaded by the buyer at a named destination. Consignee responsible for cost of importing the goods
DATDelivered at TerminalDelivered when goods is unloaded to a named terminal. Consignee responsible for cost of importing the goods
DDPDelivered Duty PaidDelivered when goods is loaded onto vessel, harbour for delivery
Deep seaDeep seaCargo shipped between continents
DemurrageDemurrageHarbour rental fee in regards to containers
DetentionDetentionContainer rental fee
DGRDangerous Goods RegulationsDangerous goods regulations – rules for handling dangerous goods during transport
Dry bulk cargoDry bulk cargoDry cargo shipped without being packed. For example sand and cereals
EANEuropean Article NumberingGives the product an unique number readable by a scanner
EDIElectronic Data InterchangeElectronic Data Interchange between computer systems
ERPEnterprise Resource PlanningThe integrated management of main business processes, often in real-time and mediated by software and technology
ETAEstimated Time of ArrivalEstimated time of arrival of goods and cargo
ETDEstimated Time of DepartureEstimated time of departure of goods and cargo
EUR-1 certificateEUR-1 certificateEUR-1 – needed to custom clear goods from within the EU
EXWEx WorksAn international trade term that describes when a seller makes a product available at a designated location, and the buyer of the product must cover the transport costs.
FASFree Alongside ShipDelivered when goods is placed along side vessel
FCAFree CarrierDelivered when goods is loaded onto transport of the consignee
FCLFull Container LoadFull container load
FeederFeederFeeders collect shipping containers from different ports and transport them to central container terminals where they are loaded to bigger vessels or further transport by truck or rail
FEU -/FFUForty Equivalent Unit/Forty Foot UnitForty foot equivalent unit/container
FOBFree On BoardDelivered when goods is loaded onto vessel
FSCFuel surchargeAdditional cost for transport according to cost of fuel in the period the goods are transported
FTLFull Truck LoadTruck fully loaded with goods
GSP CertificateGeneral System of Preference CertificatePreferential treatment is given in the form of reduced or zero rates of customs duties for access to the markets of the European Union. The GSP scheme is specifically designed to benefit certain developing countries and integrate them into the world economy
HAWBHouse AirWayBillFreight document for air transport, issued by an air freight forwarder
HAZMATHazardous MaterialGoods that are of a concern that may include danger, flammable, corrosive, explosion hazard etc
HBLHouse Bill of LadingFreight document issued by a shipping forwarder to their customers
IATAInternational Air Transport AssociationInternational Air Transport Association
IODInformation on deliveryInformation on delivery
LCLLess than Container LoadLess than container load. 1 TEU equals a 20 feet container
LmLoading meterOne loading meter is 1 meter of the loading length, and 2,40meter of the loading width. Height not included
Lo-LoLift on/Lift offLift on/lift off vessel using a crane
MAWBMaster Air WayBillFreight document for air transport issued by an airline carrier
MBLMaster Bill of LadingFreight document for shipping, issued by the shipping line
Missing IODMissing IODMissing IOD, no information on delivery of the goods
Notify partyNotify partyNotify party regarding the arrival of goods
NVOCCNon Vessel Operating Common CarrierDo not own a vessel, but can issue B/L
PDAScannerHandheld scanner for reading the barcode on the labels
POD (road freight)Proof of DeliverySignature confirmation from the receiver of delivery of the goods
POD (sea freight)Port Of DischargePort the gods are delivered
POLPort Of LoadingPort the goods are loaded
Project CargoProject CargoA term used to broadly describe the national or international transportation of large, heavy, high value or a critical (to the project they are intended for) pieces of equipment. Also commonly referred to as heavy lift
ReeferA refrigerated containerA temperature regulated container
Ro-RoRoll on/Roll offRoll on/Roll off the vessel with a truck
SCMSupply Chain ManagementThe management of the flow of goods and services, involves the movement and storage of raw materials, of work-in-process inventory, and of finished goods from point of origin to point of consumption. Interconnected, interrelated or interlinked networks, channels and node businesses combine in the provision of products and services required by end customers in a supply chain
SECASulphur Emissions Control Area

Emission control areas for shipping. There are specific emission limitations for shipping within these geographical areas. Shipping companies in these areas are required to use fuel that produces lower sulfur emissions than traditional fuel.

The cost of this fuel is charged to the freight purchaser as a SECA supplement on the invoice

ShipperShipper of cargoSender of the goods
Short seaShort seaLoads shipped within a continent
SLAService Level AgreementService Level Agreement regarding delivery times
SSCSecurity SurChargeAdditional cost according to safety risks involved
StevedoreStevedoreCompany that loads and unloads vessels and containers in a harbour
StrippingStripping of containerEmptying a container
StuffingStuffing of containerLoading a container
TEUTwenty foot Equivalent UnitTwenty foot Equivalent Unit/ Container
THCTerminal Handling ChargeTerminal and handling costs
TMS-TATransportation management systemA subset of supply chain management concerning transportation operations and may be part of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system.
TonnkilometerTonnkilometerCargo weight transported in distance. 10 tonn cargo shipped 2km equals 20 tonnkilometer
Transit harbourTransit harbourA harbour where cargo is passing through
ULDUnit Load DeviceContainer, specially adapted for aircraft and air freight
VALValuable CargoHigh value shipments need special care to ensure a safe and secure transport
W-MWeight/MeasurementWeight and measurement of shipment
Wet bulk cargoWet bulk cargoWet cargo shipped without being packed, for example oil
WMSWarehouse Management SystemThis is a software application designed to support and optimise warehouse functionality and distribution center management

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